AGRONOMIC AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMON WHEAT AND SPELT PRODUCTION IN AN ORGANIC FARMING SYSTEM
Background. This study investigated the agronomic and economic determinants of production of selected common wheat and spelt cultivars in an organic farming system. The aim of the study was to identify the production and economic factors which determine profitability of spelta growing in the regime of organic farming in comparison with common wheat. Knowledge related to production costs is an important element of improving the competitiveness of cultivation of these species.
Material and methods. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with four replications. Common wheat and spelt were grown in an organic farming system during a two-year field experiment. The analysis of economic effectiveness was calculated according to agricultural accounting standards.
Results. The total costs associated with the production of spelt cultivars significantly exceeded the total costs of common wheat production. This difference was attributed to direct costs, in particular seed prices. Spelt generated marginally higher agricultural incomes that were closely related to the higher market prices of spelt grain. The highest income margin ratio of 2.61 was noted for the late-sown spelt cv. Speltz T. The profitability ratio was lowest (2.16) for the early-sown spelt cv. Roter S.
Conclusion. Spelt production was characterized by considerably higher total costs than common wheat due to higher direct costs, in particular seed prices. Delayed sowing increased the agricultural incomes generated by spring cultivars of both common wheat and spelt.