EVALUATION OF WINTER RYE CULTIVATION TECHNOLOGY ON PRODUCTION PLANTATIONS IN THE ŁÓDŹ VOIVODESHIP DEPENDING ON PLANTATION AREA
Background. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the suitability of the winter rye production technology used at production plantations in the Łódź Voivodeship, and identification of scale and types of errors allowed by farmers in cultivation of this crop depending on plantation area.
Material and methods. In the years 2009-2012 in the Łódź Voivodeship surveys were conducted at 307 winter rye production plantations. During three-interview sorties with farmers, the level of agrotechnical factors used at the plantations were identified. In the evaluation of the applied agro-techniques the plantations were divided into two groups, depending on their area: group I with areas up to 2.0 ha (179 plantations) and group II: 2.0 ha and more (128 plantations).
Results. The plantations with areas ≥2.0 were characterized by larger grain yield by 0.2 Mg·ha-1 (7.4%) compared to plantations with areas <2.0 ha. No significant differences in the rye agrotechnology were noted in either of the plantation groups. The production technology complexity index (Wk) for plantations ≥2.0 ha was 44.8% and for plantations <2.0 ha it was 42.8%. The most common discrepancies in agrotechnology, regardless of plantation area, were related to the sowing of an excessive norm of not qualified and undressed sowing material, to the application of insufficient dosages of nitrogen as well as of phosphorus and potassium, and to no application of foliar fertilization, of fungicides, of insecticides or of growth
Conclusion. Cultivation of winter rye in the Łódź Voivodeship was characterized by a low level of agrotechnology that was independent of plantation area. At over 70.0% of the investigated plantations, the level of use of qualified sowing material, seed dressing, sowing norms, tramlines, potassium dosage, and foliage fertilization did not conform to local agrotechnical recommendations for winter rye cultivation.