THE EFFECT OF PRODUCTION SYSTEM INTENSITY ON THE YIELD OF WINTER TRITICALE (x Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus) CULTIVAR ALEKTO
Background. New production systems have to be designed to fully harness the potential of new triticale varieties. This requires determination of their responses to the major agricultural inputs such as nitrogen fertilization and pesticide use.
Material and methods. A three-year field experiment was conducted in 2008–2011 in the Production and Experimental Station in Bałcyny (53°40ʼ N; 19°50ʼ E) owned by the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilization and fungicide protection on the productivity of winter triticale cv. Alekto, and on the severity of foliar and ear diseases. The response of the semi-dwarf morphotype of winter triticale cv. Alekto to different rates of nitrogen fertilizer (90, 90 (60 + 30), 120 (60 + 60) and 150 (90 + 60) kg N·ha-1) applied at different stages, and to different fungicide treatments was tested in the study.
Results. The average grain yield determined for three years was significantly higher in the second highest input production system (120 kg N·ha-1, applied at stages BBCH 27 (50%) and BBCH 32 (50%) with seed dressing and two foliar fungicide treatments at stages BBCH 31 and 39). The second highest input system was characterized by the most desirable yield components and the highest disease resistance. The lowest yield (decrease by 9–19%, three-year average) was noted in the low-input system with a single rate of nitrogen fertilizer (90 kg N·ha-1) and only antifungal seed dressing.
Conclusion. A nitrogen fertilizer rate of 120 kg N·ha-1 combined with two foliar fungicide treatments exerted the most beneficial influence on the yield and disease resistance of semi-dwarf winter triticale.