EFFECT OF THE USE OF PRO-ECOLOGICAL TREATMENTS AND PREVIOUS CROP STRAW ON THE WEED INFESTATION OF WINTER WHEAT AND SPRING BARLEY CULTIVATED AS SHORT-TERM MONOCULTURE
Background. Wheat and barley are among the most important crops grown both in Poland and around the world. During their growth period they are exposed to the adverse impact of many pests, including weeds, fungal pathogens and insect pests. Numerous plant protection methods are used to limit their adverse impact.
Material and methods. In a three-year field study, the effect of the application of effective microorganisms (EM) Naturalnie Aktywny and Asahi SL preparations as well as the method of previous crop straw management on the number of weeds in short-term monocultures of winter wheat and spring barley were compared. Using the frame method, on individual experimental treatments, the number of dominant weeds, other weed species and the total number of weeds were randomly quantified immediately before a herbicide application (BBCH 31‒32).
Results. The dominant weeds were Viola arvensis, Apera spica-venti, Capsella bursa pastoris, Stellaria media, Chenopodium album and Cirsium arvense. The observed increased weed infestation in the experiments was primarily due to the incorporation of straw into the soil during post-harvest cultivation. The increased weed density due to straw application to the soil was minimized to different extents by the use of effective microorganisms, especially the density of Apera spica-venti, Capsella bursa pastoris, Chenopodium album and all other weeds.
Conclusion. The weed infestation in short-term monocultures of wheat and barley was encouraged by incorporation into the soil of shredded straw. Degradation of this straw by the effective microorganisms applied during post-harvest cultivation led to a reduced total weed infestation and reduced density of Apera spica venti, Capsella bursa pastoris, Chenopodium album and all other weeds.