YIELD OF WHITE MUSTARD GROWN AS STUBBLE CROP DEPENDING ON THE METHODS OF FIELD PREPARATION AND SEED SOWING
Background. In order to sustain agrocenosis biodiversity and high soil richness, under the conditions of production intensification and specialisation, it is justified to search for simplified technologies of stubble crop cultivation that would make it possible to grow it on a wider scale. The aim of the work was to determine the possibility to simplify the technology of white mustard cultivation as a stubble crop and to evaluate the effect of possible simplifications on plant yield.
Material and methods. Field experiment was carried out at the Research Station in Mochełek near Bydgoszcz in the years 2010–2012, on lessive soil of very good rye complex. The experimental factors were soil cultivation and seed sowing methods: A – traditional ploughing with seed drilling, B – simplified: stubble discing, broadcast sowing, C – simplified: stubble discing, broadcast sowing with a 20% increase in the sowing amount, D – broadcast sowing before winter wheat harvest, E – broadcast sowing before winter wheat harvest with a 20% increase in the sowing amount. Seed sowing on plots A, B, and C was carried out between August 16th and 18th, and on plots D and E on July 20th.
Results. In the study period, very high precipitation occurred in July and August. In the conditions of excessive soil moisture, the yield from white mustard was relatively low: from 1.18 Mg∙ha-1 on plots with simplified cultivation to 1.56 Mg∙ha-1 on plots with traditional cultivation. The highest dynamics of the yield increase was found in the period between the 4th and 6th week after emergence of plants cultivated traditionally and between the 4th and 8th week after emergence in the simplified soil tillage option. Simplified soil cultivation resulted in a significant decrease in the yield of white mustard green and dry matter in comparison with traditional cultivation.
Conclusion. Simplification of soil cultivation for white mustard grown as stubble crop is possible, although it affects negatively green and dry matter yield. Replacing traditional ploughing and seed drilling with stubble discing and broadcast sowing caused a very significant decrease in the yield of white mustard green and dry matter. White mustard responded relatively well to broadcast sowing carried out before winter wheat harvest.